Recommended online sources:

Edwin Curley on religious liberty – the site contains essays dedicated to the problem of the historical sources of religious liberty especially with regard to the philosophy of Spinoza.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Enlightenment – a general overview of the philosophy of Enlightenment, with focus on debates about the true, good and beautiful.

The Immanent Frame – the blog aims to describe and analyse complex relations between religion and secular state.

Persistent Enlightenment – a blog about the significance of the Enlightenment for the current condition of western culture. The author of the blog is James Schmidt.

Laïcité on French Radio – a wide selection of programs on the topic that can be listened online.

Le Monde article on two main conceptions of secularism in contemporary France – should a state be neutral to religion or non-religious? With interesting comments.

The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d’Alembert – an online translation project of all over 70’000 entries of the 32 volumes of Encyclopédie (1751-77) into English. New translations are added regularly

The founding documents of the United States in an accessible online version.


A selection of relevant literature:

E. Abrahamian, Modern İran Tarihi, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Istanbul 2014

E. Adickes, Kants Opus postumum dargestellt and beurteilt, Reuther und Reichard, Berlin 1920.

M. Akan, “Laïcité and Multiculturalism: The Stasi Report in Context”, British Journal of Sociology 60 (2), 2009, pp. 237-256.

Y. Akdoğan, Muhafazakar Demokrasi, AK Parti Yayınları, Ankara 2003.

F. Akkerman, Studies in the Posthumous Works of Spinoza, Krips Repro, Meppel 1980.

A. A. An-Na’im, Islam and the Secular State, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA and London 2008.

S. A. Arjomand, After Khomeini: Iran under His Successors, Oxford University Press, New York 2009.

D. Armitage, Foundations of Modern International Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013.

Aristotle, The Complete Works of Aristotle, Revised Oxford Translation, 2 vols., ed. J. Barnes, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1984.

T. Asad, Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam and Modernity, Stanford University Press, Stanford 2003.

T. Atabaki and E. J. Zürcher (eds.), Türkiye ve İran’da Otoriter Modernleşme Atatürk ve Rıza Şah Dönemleri, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları, Istanbul 2012.

V. Bader, Secularism or Democracy, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2007.

A. Banier, Explication historique des fables ou l’on decouvre leur origine et leur conformité avec l’Histoire ancienne, François Le Breton, Paris 1715.

M. Barkun, Religion and the Racist Right. The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill 1996.

B. Barry, Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2002.

J. Baubérot, “Liberté, laïcité, diversité – La France multiculturelle”, in P. Eid, P. Bosset, M. Milot and S. Lebel-Grenier (eds.), Appartenances religieuses, appartenance citoyenne. Un équilibre en tension, Presses de l’Université Laval, Québec 2009, pp. 12-28.

A. Bayat, Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn, Stanford University Press, Stanford 2007.

P. Bayle, Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, 3 Vols., Leers, Rotterdam 1697.

F. C. Beiser, The Fate of Reason: German Philosophy from Kant to Fichte, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA 1987.

F. C. Beiser, The Sovereignty of Reason: The Defense of Rationality in the Early English Enlightenment, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1996.

R. Bentley, Remarks Upon a Late Discourse of Free-Thinking, W. Thurlbourn, London 1713.

R. J. Bernstein, “The Secular-Religious Divide: Kant’s Legacy”, Social Research 76 (4), 2009, pp. 1035-1048.

T. Besterman and W. H. Barber (eds.), The Age of Enlightenment: Studies Presented to Theodore Besterman Oliver & Boyd, St. Andrews 1967.

R. Bhargava, “Is European Secularism Secular Enough?”, in J. L. Cohen and C. Laborde (eds.), Religion, Secularism, and Constitutional Democracy, Columbia University Press, New York 2016.

R. Bhargava, “Political Secularism: Why It Is Needed and What Can Be Learnt from Its Indian Version”, in G. Brahm Levey and T. Modood (eds.), Secularism, Religion and Multicultural Citizenship, Cambridge University Press Cambridge 2008.

R. Bhargava, “Rehabilitating Secularism”, in C. Calhoun, M. Juergensmeyer and J. VanAntwerpen (eds.), Rethinking Secularism, Oxford University Press, New York 2011, pp. 92-113.

R. Bhargava (ed.), Secularism and Its Critics, Oxford University Press, New Delhi 1999.

A. Bilgrami, “Secularism: its Content and Context”, Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1) 2015, pp. 25-48.

S. Bochart, Geographia sacra, Johann David Zunner, Frankfurt am Main 1646.

J. Bodin, Six Books of the Commonwealth, trans. M. J. Tooley, Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1955.

O. Boehm, Kant’s Critique of Spinoza, Oxford University Press, New York 2014.

R. Bordoli, Etica, arte, scienza tra Descartes e Spinoza, FrancoAngeli, Milan 1997.

R. Bordoli, “The Monopoly of Social Affluence. The jus circa sacra around Spinoza,” in S. Lavaert and W. Schröder (eds.), The Dutch Legacy. Radical Thinkers of the 17th Century and the Enlightenment, Brill, Leiden 2017.

R. Brandt, Immanuel Kant – Was bleibt?, Felix Meiner, Leipzig 2010.

C. Brown, The Death of Christian Britain, Routledge, Lndon 2001.

S. Bruce, God is Dead: Secularization in the West, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002.

A. Boubekeur, “Islamists, Secularists and Old Regime Elites in Tunisia: Bargained Competition”, Mediterrenean Politics 21 (1), 2016.

J. M. Bujanda (ed.), Index Librorum Prohibitorum 1600-1966, Droz, Genève 2002.

J. D. Burson, The Culture of Enlightening and the Entangled Life of Abbé Claude Yvon, University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend 2019, forthcoming.

J. D. Burson, The Rise and Fall of Theological Enlightenment, University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend 2010.

R. Buys, De kunst van het weldenken. Lekenfilosofie en de volkstalig rationalisme in de Nederlanden (1550-1600), Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2009.

L. E. Cady and E. Shakman (eds.), Comparative Secularisms in A Global Age, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2011, pp. 57-68.

D. Cassius, The Roman History, vol. 4, trans. E. Cary, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1955.

J. Calvin, Institutio religionis christianae, Robertus Stephanus, Genève 1559.

O. Chadwick, The Secularization of the European Mind in the 19th Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1975.

J. A. I. Champion, The Pillars of Priestcraft Shaken, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992.

R. Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution, trans. by L. G. Cochrane, Duke University Press, Durham, NJ, and London 1991.

Ö. H. Çınar and M. Yıldırım (eds.), Freedom of Religion and Belief in Turkey, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne 2014.

A. I. Clemente, La auctoritas romana, Dykinson, Madrid 2014.

J. Cohen and C. Laborde (eds.), Religion, Secularism and Constitutional Democracy, Columbia University Press, New York.

A. Collins, A Discourse of Free-Thinking, Occasion’d by the Rise and Growth of a Sect Call’d Free-Thinkers, London 1713.

A. Collins, Priestcraft in Perfection, London 1710.

J. Collins, The Allegiance of Thomas Hobbes, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007.

A. Ashley-Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury, Characteristicks of Man, Manners, Opinions, Times, Liberty Fund, Indianapolis 2001.

W. M. Curtis, Defending Rorty. Pragmatism and Liberal Virtue, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York 2015.

H. Dabashi, İran: Ketlenmiş Halk, Metis Yayıncılık, Istanbul 2008.

G. Davie, Religion in Britain since 1945: Believing without Belonging, John Wiley and Sons, Oxford 1994.

M. Davis, “Kant’s Fourth Defense of Freedom of Expression”, The Southern Journal of Philosophy 21 (1), 1983.

R. Descartes, Œuvres de Descartes, 4 vols., ed. C. Adam and P. Tannery, Cerf, Paris 1901.

D. Diderot and J. le Rond d’Alembert (eds.), Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, etc., 28 vols, A. le Breton, M.-A. David, L. Durand and A.-C. Briasson, Paris & Neufchastel 1751-72.

R. Domingo, Auctoritas, Ariel, Barcelona 1999.

R. Douglass and L. van Apeldoorn (eds.), Hobbes on Politics and Religion, Oxford University Press, Oxford, forthcoming.

J. Dunn, “The Claim to Freedom of Conscience: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Thought, Freedom of Worship?”, in P. P. Grell, J. I. Israel and N. Tyacke (eds.), From Persecution to Toleration: The Glorious Revolution and Religion in England, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991.

R. Dworkin, Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2002.

W. Eckstein, “The Religious Element in Spinoza’s Philosophy”, The Journal of Religion 23 (3), 1943.

A. Ehtestami and M. Zweiri, Iran and the Rise of its Neoconservatives. The Politics of Tehran’s Silent Revolution, I. B. Tauris, London 2007.

J. L. Esposito and A. Tamimi (eds.), Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, New York University Press, New York 2000.

B. Feldman and R. D. Richardson, The Rise of Modern Mythology, 1680-1860, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1972.

R. Flathman, “Hobbes: Premier Theorist of Authority”, Hobbes Studies 10 2015.

R. Flathman, Thomas Hobbes: Skepticism, Individuality and Chastened Politics, Sage, Newbury Park 1993.

J. H. Franklin, Jean Bodin and the Rise of Absolutist Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1973.

B. Le Bovier de Fontanelle, Oevres de Fontenelle, 4 vols. Salmon, Paris 1825.

F. Furedi, Authority: A Sociological History, Cambridge University Press, New York 2013.

P. Gay, The Enlightenment: An Interpretation, vol. 2: The Science of Freedom, W. W. Norton & Co, New York 1996.

P. Geyl, Het stadhouderschap in de partij-literatuur onder de Witt, Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij, Amsterdam 1947.

N. Ghobadzadeh and L. Z. Rahimi, “Islamic Reformation Discourses: Popular Sovereignty and Religious Secularization in Iran”, Democratization 19 (2), 2012.

M. J. Green, “Authorization and Political Authority in Hobbes”, Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (1), 2015.

G. Groc, “AKP, Türkiye’deki Laikliğin Derdi mi Dostu mu?”, in S. Akgönül (ed.), Tartışılan Laiklik: Fransa ve Türkiye’de İlkeler ve Algılamalar, Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları, Istanbul 2011.

O. Göksel, “Perceptions of the Turkish Model in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia”, Turkish Studies 15 (3), 2014, pp. 476-495.

K. Greenawalt, Religion and the Constitution, Vol. 1: Free Exercise and Fairness and Vol. 2: Establishment and Fairness, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2009.

J. M. Grès-Gayer, D’un jansénisme à l’autre: chroniques de Sorbonne, 1696-1713, Nolin, Paris 2007.

P. Grossi, Mitologia giuridiche della modernità, Giuffrè, Milano 2001.

G. Haarscher, “Religious Revival and Pseudo-Secularism”, Cardozo Law Review 30, 2009, pp. 2799-2819.

J. Habermas, Between Naturalism and Religion, trans. C. Cronin, Polity Press, Cambridge 2008.

J. Habermas and C. Taylor, “Dialogue”, in E. Mendieta and J. VanAntwerpen (eds.), The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere: Judith Butler, Jürgen Habermas, Charles Taylor, Cornel West, Columbia University Press, New York 2011.

J. Habermas, “Faith and Knowledge”, trans. H. Beister and W. Rehy, in E. Mendieta (ed.), The Frankfurt School on Religion, Routledge, New York 2005.

J. Habermas, “The Political: The Rational Meaning of a Questionable Inheritance of Political Theology”, in E. Mendieta and J. VanAntwerpen (eds.), The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere, 2011.

P. Hamburger, Separation of Church and State, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2009.

A. Harrington, “Habermas and the Post Secular Society”, European Journal of Social Theory 10 (4) 2007.

J. Harrington, The Commonwealth of Oceana and A System of Politics, ed. J. G. A. Pocock. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1992.

N. Hashemi, Islam, Secularism and Liberal Democracy, Oxford University Press, New York 2009.

F. Heal, Reformation in Britain and Ireland, Clarendon Press, Oxford 2003, pp. 125-40.

G. R. Healy, “The French Jesuits and the Idea of the Noble Savage”, The William and Mary Quarterly 15 (2), 1958, pp. 143-167.

C. van Heertum (ed.), Libertas philosophandi. Spinoza als gids van een vrije wereld, In de Pelikaan, Amsterdam 2008.

G.W.F. Hegel, “Rede bei der dritten Säkularfeier der Übergabe der Augsburgischen Konfession”, in idem, Berliner Schriften 1818-1831. Sämtliche Werke, Vol. 11, Felix Meiner Vg., Hamburg 1956.

G.W.F. Hegel, The Philosophy of History, trans. J. Sibree, Batoche Books, Kitchener 2001

G.W.F. Hegel, Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1986.

G.W.F. Hegel, Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1986.
G.W.F. Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1986.

J. O’Higgins, Anthony Collins: The Man and His Works, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague 1970.

T. Hobbes, De Cive, ed. H. Warrender, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1983.

T. Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. N. Malcolm. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2012.

T. Hobbes, The Elements of Law, ed. F. Tönnies, Frank Cass & Co, London 1984.
N. Hoffer, “The Relation between God and the World in the Pre-Critical Kant: Was Kant a Spinozist?”, Kantian Review 21 (2), 2016.

H.G. Hubbeling, “The Preface to Spinoza’s Posthumous Works”, Lias 6, 1979.

W. Hudson, The English Deists: Studies in Early Enlightenment, Pickering and Chatto, London 2009.

W. Hudson, D. Lucci and J. R. Wigelswort (eds.), Atheism and Deism Revalued, Ashgate, Burlington 2014.

J. P. Hudzik, “The Poetic of Narrating Modernity”, in C. Garbowski, J. P. Hudzik, J. Kłos (eds.), Charles Taylor’s Vision of Modernity: Reconstructions and Interpretations, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne 2009.

D. Hume, Treatise of Human Understanding, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1896.

L. Hunt, M. C. Jacob and W. Mijnhardt, The Book that Changed Europe: Picart and Bernard’s ‘Religious Ceremonies of the World’, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2010.

I. Hunter, “Kant’s Religion and Prussian Religious Policy”, Modern Intellectual History 2 (1), 2005.

I. Hunter, Rival Enlightenments. Civil and Metaphysical Philosophy in Early Modern Germany, Cambridge University Press, New York 2003.

I. Hunter, “Secularization: The Birth of a Modern Combat Concept”, Modern Intellectual History 12 (1), 2015.

A. Huxley, Brave New World, Collins, London 1932/1985.

J. Israel, Enlightenment Contested. Philosophy, Modernity and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006.

J. Israel, “Enlightenment! Which Enlightenment?”, Journal of the History of Ideas 67 (3), 2006, pp. 523-545.

J. Israel, Locke, Spinoza and the Philosophical Debate Concerning Toleration in the Early Enlightenment (c. 1670-c. 1750), Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam 1999.

J. Israel, Radical Enlightenment. Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1672, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001.

M. C. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe, Oxford University Press, New York 1991.

M. C. Jacob, Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons and Republicans, Oxford University Press, New York 1991.

M. C. Jacob, The Newtonians and the English Revolution, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 1976.

R. Jahanbegloo, “Two Concepts of Secularism”, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31 (1), 2011.

D. Johnston, The Rhetoric of Leviathan: Thomas Hobbes and the Politics of Cultural Transformation. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1986.

J. Jelles, Belydenisse des algemeenen en christelyken Geloofs, ed. L. Spruijt, Quodlibet, Macerata 1648/2004.

P. C. Juffermans, Drie perspectieven op religie in het denken van Spinoza, Damon, Budel 2003.

G. H. Jongeneelen, “Adriaan Koerbagh, een voorloper van de verlichting”, Geschiedenis van de wijsbegeerte in Nederland 5, 1994.

F. A. Kafker, Encyclopedists as a Group, Voltaire Foundation, Oxford 1996.

D. Kandiyoti, “The Travails of the Secular: Puzzle and Paradox in Turkey”, Economy and Society 41 (4), 2000.

M. Kamrava, Iran’s Intellectual Revolution, Cambridge University Press, New York 2008.

I. Kant, Correspondence, trans. A. Zweig, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999.

I. Kant, Critique of Judgment, trans. J. C. Meredith, Oxford University Press, New York 2007.

I. Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, trans. P. Guyer and A. W. Wood, Cambridge University Press, New York 1998.

I. Kant, Kants Gesammelte Schriften, 29 vols., ed. Königliche Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Reimer, Berlin 1900-1922, De Gruyter, Berlin 1922-2009.

I. Kant, Notes and Fragments, ed. P. Guyer, trans. C. Bowman, P. Guyer and F. Rauscher, Cambridge University Press, New York 2005.

I. Kant, Opus postumum, trans. E. Förster and M. Rosen, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993.

I. Kant, Practical Philosophy, trans. and ed. M. J. Gregor, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996.

I. Kant, Religion and Rational Theology, trans. A. W. Wood and G. di Giovanni, Cambridge University Press, New York 2001.

I. Kant, The Conflict of the Faculties, trans. M. J. Gregor, Abaris Books, New York 1979.

I. Kant, Theoretical Philosophy, 1755 – 1770, trans. D. Walford, R. Meerbote, Cambridge University Press, New York 1992.

N. R. Keddie, “Secularism and Its Discontents”, Daedalus 132 (3), 2003.

A. Koerbagh, Een Bloemhof van allerley lieflykheyd, Amsterdam 1668.

A. Koerbagh, A Light Shining in Dark Places to Illuminate the Main Questions of Theology and Religion, ed. and trans. M. Wielema, Brill, Leiden 2011.

L. Kołakowski, Chretiens sans eglise: La conscience religieuse et le lien au XVIIe siècle, trans. A. Posner, Gallimard, Paris 1987.

L. Kołakowski, “Man Does Not Live by Reason Alone”, an interview by N. Gardels, New Perspectives Quarterly 26 (4), 2009 and 27 (1), 2010.

L. Kołakowski, Modernity on Endless Trial, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1990.

H. A. Krop, “Het monster van preciesheid. Voetius’ programma van de nadere Reformatie in de ogen van Martinus Schoock”, Documentatieblad Nadere Reformatie 38 (1), 2014, pp. 15-18.

H.A. Krop, “The Philosophia S. Scripturae interpres between Humanist Scholarship and Cartesian Science. Lodewijk Meyer and the Emancipatory Power of Philology”, in S. Lavaert and W. Schröder (eds), The Dutch Legacy. Radical Thinkers of the 17th Century and the Enlightenment, 2017.

H.A. Krop, “Spinoza and the Calvinist Cartesianism of Lambertus van Velthuysen”, Studia Spinozana 15, 1999, pp. 115-117.

W. Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship: A Theory of Minority Rights, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1995; J. Quong, “Cultural Exemptions, Expensive Tastes, and Equal Opportunities”, Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1) 2006, pp. 53-71.

C. Hill, The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution, The Viking Press, New York 1973.

C. Laborde, “Political Liberalism and Religion: On Separation and Establishment”, Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (1), pp. 67-86.

S. Lægaard, “Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality”, Politics 28 (3) 2008, pp. 160-168.

S. Lægaard, “Religious Neutrality, Toleration and Recognition in Moderate Secular States: The Case of Denmark”, Les ateliers de l’éthique 6 (2) 2012, pp. 85-106.

J.-F. Lafitau, Mœurs des sauvages ameriquains comparées aux mœurs des premiers temps, 2 Vols., Saugrain & Hocherau, Paris 1724.

I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1970.

U. Lehner, The Catholic Enlightenment: The Forgotten History of a Global Movement, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015.

J. Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration, ed. J. Tully, Hackett, Indianapolis 1983.

J. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, ed. P. H. Nidditch, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1975.

B. Lord, Kant and Spinozism. Transcendental Idealism from Jacobi to Deleuze, Palgrave Macmillan, London 2011.
U. Lotz-Heumann, “The Concept of ‘Confessionalization’: A Historical Paradigm in Dispute”, Memoria y civilización: anuario de historia 4, 2001, pp. 93-114.

M. Lowrie, Writing, Performance and Authority in Augustan Rome, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009.

D. Lucci, “Deism, Freethinking and Toleration in Enlightenment England”, History of European Ideas 42, 2016

L. Macé, “Les Lumières françaises au tribunal de l’Index et du Saint-Office”, Dix-huitième siècle 34, 2002, pp. 13-25.

J. Maclure, “La philosophie politique analytique et ses critiques”, in D. Giroux and D. Karmis (eds.), Ceci n’est pas une idée politique: Réflexions sur les approches à l’étude des idées politiques, Presses de l’Université Laval, Québec 2013.

J. Maclure and C. Taylor, Secularism and Freedom of Conscience, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2011.

R. McCarthy, “Re-thinking Secularism in Post-Independence Tunisia”, The Journal of North African Studies 19 (5), 2014, pp. 734-735.

A. MacIntyre, After Virtue, 3rd. edition, Notre Dame University Press, South Bend 2007.

J. McManners, Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1998.

A. Magdelain, Jus imperium Auctoritas: études de droit romain, École française de Rome, Rome 1990.

S. Mahmood, Religious Difference in a Secular Age, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2015.

F. E. Manuel, The Religion of Isaac Newton, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1974.

G. P. Marana, L’Espion du Grand-Seigneur, Claude Barbin, Paris 1684.

M. Marks, “Tunisia’s Ennahda: Rethinking Islamism in the Context of ISIS and the Egpytian Coup”, Working Paper, Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World, Rethinking Political Islam Series, Brookings Institute, Washington DC (, 2015.

K.O. Meinsma, Spinoza et son cercle, with a preface by H. Gouhier, Vrin, Paris 1983.

D. Melidoro, “Laïcité et Liberté de Conscience”, International Review of Sociology 22 (1) 2012, pp. 167-169.

F. Merone, “Between Social Contention and Takfirism: The Evolution of the Salafi-Jihadi Movement in Tunisia”, Mediterrenean Politics 21 (1), 2016

T. Mertens, “How to Read Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals? A Conversation with My Student”, Studi Kantiani 29, 2016,

J. Meslier, Le Testament de Jean Meslier, La Librairie Etrangère, Amsterdam 1864.

L. Meyer [?], Du droit des ecclésiastiques, trans. V. Butori, Centre de philosophie politique et juridique, Caen 1991.

L. Meyer, Philosophy as the Interpreter of Holy Scripture (1666), trans. S. Shirley, Marquette University Press, Milwaukee 2005.

P. N. Miller, “‘Freethinking’ and ‘Freedom of Thought’ in Eighteenth-Century Britain”, The Historical Journal 36 (3), 1993.

J. Milton, Areopagitica, Replica, Noel Douglas, London 1917.

J. Milton, Political Writings, ed. M. Dzelzainis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993.

A. Mirsepassi, Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000.

T. Modood, “Moderate Secularism, Religion as Identity and Respect for Religion”, The Political Quarterly 81 (1), 2010, pp. 4-14.

T. Mommsem, Römisches Staatsrecht, S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1888.
A. Morellet, Mémoires de l’abbé Morellet de l’Académie française, sur le dix-huitième siècle et sur la Révolution, précédés de l’éloge de l’abbé Morellet par M. Lémontey, Vol. 1. Librairie Française de Ladvocat, Paris 1821

J. Mourão Permoser, S. Rosenberg, “Religious Citizenship Versus Policies of Immigrant Integration: The Case of Austria”, in M. Koening (ed.), International Migration and the Governance of Religious Diversity, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal and Kingston, CA, pp. 259-289.

J. Muldoon, “Auctoritas, Potestas and World Order”, in R. Figueira, Plenitude of Power: the Doctrines and Exercise of Authority in the Middle Ages: Essays in Memory of Robert Louis Benson, Ashgate, Burlington 2006.

D. E. Mungello, Curious Land: Jesuit Accommodation and the Origins of Sinology, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1989.

E. Murphy, Economic and Political Change in Tunisia: From Bourguiba to Ben Ali, Palgrave Macmillan, London 1999.

S. Nadler, Spinoza: A Life, Cambridge University Press, New York 1999.

V. Nasr, “Secularism: Lessons from the Muslim World”, Daedalus 132 (3), 2003, pp. 67-72.

F. G. Nauen, “Kant as an Inadvertent Precursor of 18th-Century Neospinozism. On Optimism (1759)”, Kant-Studien 83 (3), 1992.

L. Nicolas, The Codex Canadensis and the Writings of Louis Nicolas, ed. F.-M. Gagnon and R. Ouellet, trans. N. Senior, McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal 2011

P. Niesen, Kants Theorie der Redefreiheit, Nomos, Baden-Baden 2014.

F. Nietzsche, The Gay Science, trans. J. Nauckhoff, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2001.

M. Nussbaum, Liberty of Conscience: In Defense of America’s Tradition of Religious Equality, Basic Books, New York 2007.

M. Nussbaum, The New Religious Intolerance. Overcoming the Politics of Fear in an Anxious Age, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2012,

M. Özkan, “Religion, Secularism and Politics in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia”, Raphir: Revista de Antropologia y Filosofia de las Religiones 1 (2), 2014.

D. Pals, Nine Theories of Religion, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015.

K. Pargament, The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research, Practice, Guilford Press, New York 1997.

J. Parkin, Taming the Leviathan: The Reception of the Political and Religious Ideas of Thomas Hobbes in England, 1640–1700, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007

S. C. Pearson, Jr., “The Religion of John Locke and the Character of His Thought”, Journal of Religion 58 (3), 1978, pp. 250-253.

A. Pinheiro Walla “Virtue and Prudence in a Footnote of the Doctrine of Virtue (VI: 433n.)”, Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik 21, 2013.

M-C. Pitassi, Le Christ entre orthodoxie et lumières, Droz, Genève 1994.

K. Pennington, The Prince and the Law: 1200-1600, University California Press, Berkeley 1993.

R. Po-Chia Hsia, Social Discipline in the Reformation, 1550-1770, Routledge, London 1989.

R. H. Popkin and J. Force (eds.), Essays on the Context, Nature, and Influence of Isaac Newton’s Theology, Kluwer, Dordrecht 1990.

R. H. Popkin, Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence, Brill, Leiden 1987.

R. H. Popkin, “The Rise and Fall of Jewish Indian Theory” in Y. Kaplan, R. H. Popkin and H. Méchoulan, (eds.), Menasseh ben Israel and His World, Brill, Leiden 1989.

P. Prodi, The Papal Prince: one Body and two Souls: The Papal Monarchy in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1987.

J. Rawls, Political Liberalism, Columbia University Press, New York 1993.

J. Rawls, The Law of Peoples with The Idea of Public Reason Revisited, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1999.

M. Ricci and N. Trigault, Histoire de l’expédition chretienne au royaume de la Chine entreprise par les PP. de la Compagnie de Jésus, trans. Anon., Horace Cardon, Lyon 1616.

R. Rorty and G. Vattimo, The Future of Religion, Columbia University Press, New York 2005.

P. Rossi, The Dark Abyss of Time: The History of the Earth and the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico, trans. L. G. Cochrane, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London 1987.

E. Rouleau, “Turkey: Beyond Atatürk”, Foreign Policy 103 (2), 1996

A. H. Rowbotham, “Voltaire, Sinophile”, Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 47 (4), 1932.

S. Salatowsky, “Socinian Headaches. Adriaan Koerbagh and the Antitrinitarians”, in S. Lavaert and W. Schröder (eds.), The Dutch Legacy. Radical Thinkers of the 17th Century and the Enlightenment, 2017.

A. Samely, Spinozas Theorie der Religion, Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1993.

H. Schilling, “Afkeer van domineesheerschappij. Ein neuzeitlicher Typus des Antiklerikalismus”, in H.A. Oberman (ed.), Anticlericalism in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe, Brill, Leiden 1993.

H. Schilling, “Dutch Republicanism in its Historical Context”, in idem, Religion Political Culture and the Emergence of Early Modern Society, Brill, Leiden 1992.

W. Schluchter, “Die Paradoxie der Rationalisierung”, Zeitschrift für Soziologie 5, 1976.

C. L. de Secondat de La Brède et de Montesquieu, Lettres persanes, ed. P. Stewart, Classiques Garnier, Paris 2013.

L. Siedentop, Democracy in Europe, Columbia University Press, New York 2001.

L. Siedentop, Inventing the Individual: The Origins of Western Liberalism, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2014.

Q. Skinner, Hobbes and Republican Liberty, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2008.

Q. Skinner, “Hobbes on Persons, Authors and Representatives”, in P. Springborg (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes’s Leviathan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007.

M. Skrzypek, Oświecenie francuskie a początki religioznawstwa, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław 1989.

G. Smith, A Short History of Secularism, IB Tauris, London 2008.

M. Somer, “Conquering versus Democratizing the State: Political Islamists and Fourth Wave Democratization in Turkey and Tunisia”, Democratization 24 (6), 2017.

R. Sorabji, Self: Ancient and Modern Insights about Individuality, Life and Death, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2006.

R. W. Southern, Western Society and the Church of the Middle Ages, Penguin, London 1970.

B. Spinoza, Complete Works, trans. S. Shirley, Hackett Publishing Co., Indianapolis and Cambridge 2002.

B. Spinoza, Ethics, Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect and Selected Letters, trans. S. Shirley, Hackett, Indiapolis 1991.

B. Spinoza, Opera Posthuma, Rieuwertsz, Amsterdam 1677.

K. E. Stanovich, Rationality and the Reflective Mind, Oxford University Press, New York 2011.

U. Steinvorth, Pride and Authenticity, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2016.

E. Straehle, “Algunas claves para una relectura de la autoridad”, Las torres de Lucca. Revista Internacional de Filosofía Política 7, 2015, pp. 171-207.

L. Strauss, Spinoza’s Critique of Religion, trans. E. M. Sinclair, Schocken Books, New York 1982.

G. G. Stroumsa, The New Science: The Discovery of Religion in the Age of Reason, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, and London 2010.

A. Sutcliffe, Judaism and Enlightenment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2005.

C. Taylor, A Secular Age, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2007.

C. Taylor, Modern Social Imaginaries, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, and London 2004.

C. Taylor, Varieties of Religion Today: William James Revisited, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 2002.

C. Taylor, “Why We Need a Radical Redefinition of Secularism”, in E. Mendieta and J. VanAntwerpen (eds.), The Power of Religion in the Public Sphere, 2011.

M. Tindal, Christianity as Old as the Creation: Or, the Gospel, a Republication of the Religion of Nature, London 1730.

A. Tomaszewska, “Kant’s Reconception of Religion and Contemporary Secularism”, Roczniki Filozoficzne 64 (4), 2016.

A. Tomaszewska, “Spinoza’s God in Kant’s Pre-Critical Writings: An Attempt at Localizing the ‘Threat’”, Kant Studies Online 2015, pp. 65-102.

A. Trampota, O. Sensen and J. Timmermann (eds.), Kant’s Tugendlehre, A Comprehensive Commentary, De Gruyter, Berlin 2013.

R. Tuck, Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1979.

R. Tuck, “Power and Authority in Seventeenth-Century England”, The Historical Journal 17, 1974.

R. Tuck, The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001.

W. Ullmann, The Growth of Papal Government in the Middle Ages, Methuen & Co, London 1962.

W. Ullmann, Principles of Government and Politics in the Middle Ages, Methuen & Co., London 1974.

W. van Bunge, “Concordia res parvae crescunt. The Context of 17th-Century Dutch Radicalism”, in S. Lavaert and W. Schröder (eds.), The Dutch Legacy. Radical Thinkers of the 17th Century and the Enlightenment, 2017.

W. van Bunge, De Nederlandse Republiek, Spinoza en de Radicale Verlichting, VUBPress, Brussel 2010.

W. van Bunge, “Radical Enlightenment. A Dutch Perspective”, in idem., Spinoza Past and Present, Brill, Leiden 2011.

W. van Bunge, H. A. Krop, P. Steenbakkens and J. M. M. van de Ven (eds.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Spinoza, Bloomsbury, London 2011.

P. van der Veer, “Religion after 1750”, in J. R. McNeill and K. Pomeranz, The Cambridge World History, vol. 7: Production, Destruction, and Connection, 1750 – Present, Part 2: Shared Transformations?, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2015, pp. 160-180.

I. van Hardeveld, Lodewijk Meijer (1629-1681) als lexicograaf, a thesis, Leiden University 2000.

D. K. Van Kley, Reform Catholicism and the International Suppression of the Jesuits, c. 1750-1790, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2017.

J. van Vloten, Benedictus de Spinoza naar leven en werken in verband met zijnen en onzen tijd, H. A. M. Roelants, Schiedam 1871.

F. Vidal, The Sciences of the Soul: The Early Modern Origins of Psychology, trans. S. Brown, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London 2011.

R. Vermij, The Dutch Copernicans. The Reception of the New Astronomy in the Dutch Republic 1575-1750, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam 2002.

F. Volpi, “Explaining and (Re-Explaining) Political Change in the Middle East During the Arab Spring: Trajectories of Democratization and of Authoritarianism in the Maghreb”, Democratization 20 (6), 2013, pp. 69-99.

K. Vorländer, Immanuel Kants Leben, ed. R. Malter, Felix Meiner, Hamburg 1974

G. I. Vossius, De theologia et philosophia christiana, Amsterdam 1641.

V. Waermont, De Souverainiteyt Van Holland ende West-Vriesland. Klaer ende naecktelijck vertoont In een ’t Samen-spraeck tusschen een Gereformeerden Hollander en Zeeuw. Tot Refutatie van den verresen Barnevelt, Antoni de Verde, Middelburg 1664.

C. J. Webb, Kant’s Philosophy of Religion, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1926.

M. Weber, “Zwischenbetrachtung”, in idem., Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie, Vol. 1: Wirtschaftsethik der Weltreligionen, Mohr, Tübingen 1920, pp. 536-74.

L. Weckmann, El pensamiento politico medieval y los orígenes del derecho internacinal, Fondo de Cultura Económica, Ciudad de México 1993.

M. Wielema, “Two Faces of Adriaan Koerbagh”, Geschiedenis van de wijsbegeerte in Nederland 12, 2001.

S. Weinberg, The First Three Minutes, Basic Books, New York 1977.
B. Winter, “Women’s Human Rights and Tunisian Upheavals: Is ‘Democracy’ Enough?”, Global Discourse 6 (3), 2016.

C. Wirszubski, Libertas as a Political Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Principate, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1968.

Y. Yovel, Spinoza and Other Heretics. The Adventures of Immanence, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1989.

C. Yvon, Liberté de conscience reserrée dans des bornes légitimes, Chèz Herold, Londres et Hambourg 1754.

H. Zabel, Verweltlichung/Säkularisierung. Zur Geschichte einer Interpretationskategorie, an inaugural dissertation, University of Münster 1968.

Y-C. Zarka, Hobbes et la pensée politique moderne, Presses Universitaire de France, Paris 1995.

E. W. Zeeden, Konfessionsbildung. Studien zur Reformation, Gegenreformation und katholischen Reform, Klett-Cota, Stuttgart 1985.

M. Zeghal, “Competing Ways of Life: Islamism, Secularism and Public Order in the Tunisian Transition”, Constellations 20 (2), 2013

Z. Shalev, Sacred Words and Worlds. Geography, Religion, and Scholarship, 1550-1700, Brill, Leiden 2011.